Over-exposure to fluoride can occur when extremely high natural fluoride levels in your soil or water sources are ingested during early-stage tooth development and childhood. Fluorosis, which can cause enamel defects and tooth discoloration, is a common result10. Ingesting a large amount of fluoride at any given time can also cause gastrointestinal distress. It is no reason to avoid fluoride in toothpaste, as fluorosis is caused by prolonged internal absorption.
Dental fluorosis can also occur if parents give their children excessive fluoride supplements on top of fluoride in their water source and toothpaste10. As the permanent teeth erupt, there may be visible pitted enamel or dark brown spotting across the surface of their child’s teeth.
Fluoride dangers, such as overexposure or a fluoride allergy, are extremely rare. If you have concerns about fluoride dangers or fluoride toxicity, it is important to talk with your local family dentist as it relates to your oral health and specific community factors.
As with dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis is also a side-effect of excessive fluoride intake during childhood11. The hyper-calcified deposits in bone structures can cause skeletal irregularities that may not be visible without diagnostic X-rays. However, they cause the bones to be weaker than normal and cases are most common in developing countries due to contaminated groundwater12.